Science can identify the source of timber and verifying legality. So it should be a simple case to apply the science to new international legislation that aims to limit illegally logged timber in global supply chains. Well not quite, the application of science requires understanding of the timber industry and supply chain dynamics. A new paper helps identify how science can help eliminate illegal logging.
Artists impression of illegal timber in supply chains. The image plays on the idea of identification by arranging logs into a visual barcode – DNA barcoding is also a method of species identification. A single red log dripping blood depicts the environmental and societal damage caused by illegal logging and the fingerprints highlight our ability to now identify these types of products in global supply chains (attribution: Little Bones and the Environment Institute) .
In May 2014, the Member States of the United Nations adopted Resolution 23/1 on “strengthening a targeted crime prevention and criminal justice response to combat illicit trafficking in forest products, including timber.” The resolution promotes the development of tools and technologies that can be used to combat the illicit trafficking of timber. Stopping illegal logging worldwide could substantially increase revenue from the legal trade in timber and halt the associated environmental degradation, but law enforcement and timber traders themselves are hampered by the lack of available tools to verify timber legality.
A new paper outlines how scientific methods can be used to verify global timber supply chains. These methods, including wood anatomy, DNA and chemical methodsare capable of supporting timber law enforcement and compliance, but work is required to expand the applicability of these methods and provide the certification, policy, and enforcement frameworks needed for effective routine implementation.
A schematic representation of the timber supply chain. Sustainably and/or legally harvested timber originates from appropriately managed logging concessions and is moved along the supply chain to log yards, saw mills, and processing plants. Products are then moved from processing to the point of sale or are exported for processing and reimported (often through multiple countries) before reaching the final point of sale. At each stage, illegally sourced timber products can enter the supply chain. A range of scientific technologies (visual, chemical, and genetic) exist that can be used to verify the legality of timber products at each stage of the supply chain.